Exciting developments are coming

Sample OCT scan showing choroidal hypertransmission


Baseline OCT scan with BCVA of 20/25, showing choroidal hypertransmission defect

BCVA: 20/25
Choroidal hypertransmission defect is a sign of atrophy.

Year 4*

OCT scan at Year 4 with BCVA of 20/25. A larger area of hypertransmission is seen compared to baseline

BCVA: 20/50
Lesion has grown closer to the fovea as shown by larger area of hypertransmission in OCT. However, BCVA has only declined slightly as fovea is still intact.

GA is the advanced form of dry AMD, a leading cause of significant vision loss worldwide1,10

Year numbers Year numbers

Median time to foveal encroachment from diagnosis (in a subpopulation [n=397] of a retrospective analysis within the larger AREDS prospective study [N=3640])3†


of patients' vision was impacted by GA faster than expected, according to a survey conducted by The Harris Poll and sponsored by Apellis Pharmaceuticals (N=203)11‡

Downloadable resources to help you recognize and refer GA

The resources below are only the beginning; there is so much more to come later this summer.

GA Patient Case Studies

GA Patient Case Studies

Includes different examples of patients who have GA.

GA Quick Reference Guide

GA Quick Reference Guide

Contains key information about GA, including statistics, diagnostic images, and illustrations of what the world may look like for a patient living with GA.

ClinTopics® Newsletter

ClinTopics® Newsletter

Dr Julie Rodman, a leading optometry expert, provides clinical perspectives on the diagnosis and referral of patients with GA.

There is an FDA-approved treatment option for GA secondary to AMD

OCT header image courtesy of Dr Julie Rodman, OD, Broward Eye Care Institute.

AMD=age-related macular degeneration; BCVA=best-corrected visual acuity; OCT=optical coherence tomography; RPE=retinal pigment epithelium.

*Baseline and Year 4 images courtesy of Dr Mohammad Rafieetary, OD, Charles Retina Institute.

The Age-related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) #26, a long-term, multicenter, prospective study examining the progression of GA area in a cohort of 3640 patients with signs of early and more advanced forms of AMD.3

The global Geographic Atrophy Insights Survey (GAINS) was sponsored by Apellis and conducted by The Harris Poll between October 12 to December 10, 2021. To accommodate visually impaired respondents, the survey was conducted online and via the telephone among 203 participants aged 60 or over (mean age 70 years) residing in the US, UK, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Canada, and Australia who self-reported that they have been diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and have dry AMD in at least one of their eyes. They must also have indicated that they have advanced atrophic age-related macular degeneration or advanced atrophic AMD, advanced/late/late-stage dry age-related macular degeneration or advanced dry AMD, or geographic atrophy (GA) in one or both of their eyes. Included patients must have been currently experiencing at least 3 GA symptoms and currently do/used to do/or have been suggested by an eye care professional but have not done at least one of the following: Take a high-dose formulation of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, stop smoking, maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly, choose a healthy diet, manage other medical conditions, have check-ups of the retina regularly, or wear sunglasses with UV protection. Included patients must not have been diagnosed with glaucoma, Stargardt disease, or dementia, or be receiving regular injections into the affected eye every 4 to 6 weeks.11


  1. 1Fleckenstein M, Mitchell P, Freund KB, et al. The progression of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2018;125(3):369-390. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.08.038.

  2. 2Boyer DS, Schmidt-Erfurth U, van Lookeren Campagne M, Henry EC, Brittain C. The pathophysiology of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration and the complement pathway as a therapeutic target. Retina. 2017;37(5):819-835. doi:10.1097/iae.0000000000001392.

  3. 3Lindblad AS, Lloyd PC, Clemons TE, et al; Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Change in area of geographic atrophy in the age-related eye disease study: AREDS report number 26. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(9):1168-1174. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.198.

  4. 4Holz FG, Strauss EC, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, van Lookeren Campagne M. Geographic atrophy: clinical features and potential therapeutic approaches. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(5):1079-1091. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.11.023.

  5. 5Sunness JS, Margalit E, Srikumaran D, et al. The long-term natural history of geographic atrophy from age-related macular degeneration: enlargement of atrophy and implications for interventional clinical trials. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(2):271-277.

  6. 6Heier JS, Pieramici D, Chakravarthy U, et al. Visual function decline resulting from geographic atrophy: results from the Chroma and Spectri phase 3 trials. Ophthalmol Retina. 2020;4(7):673-688. doi:10.1016/j.oret.2020.01.019.

  7. 7Sunness JS, Rubin GS, Applegate CA, et al. Visual function abnormalities and prognosis in eyes with age-related geographic atrophy of the macula and good visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 1997;104(10):1677-1691. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(97):30079-7.

  8. 8Sunness JS, Applegate CA, Haselwood D, Rubin GS. Fixation patterns and reading rates in eyes with central scotomas from advanced atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(9):1458-1466. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(96)30483-1.

  9. 9Sunness JS, Applegate CA. Long-term follow-up of fixation patterns in eyes with central scotomas from geographic atrophy that is associated with age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(6):1085-1093. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.07.040.

  10. 10Gehrs KM, Anderson DH, Johnson LV, Hageman GS. Age-related macular degeneration—emerging pathogenetic and therapeutic concepts. Ann Med. 2006;38(7):450-471. doi:10.1080/07853890600946724.

  11. 11Data on file. Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Apellis GA Survey Final Report.